Tuesday, October 28, 2008

Single Window authority clears 2 projects: one in Balangir

The Pioneer, Oct 28, 2008

The State level- Single Window Clearance Authority on Monday cleared two proposals in power sector. It approved the NTPC's 4, 300 megawatt power project. Rs 19,840 crore would be invested and the project would come up in Dhenkanal.

It also approved another proposal in the thermal sector. Sahara India Power Corporation in collaboration with Goudin of China will set up a thermal project at Bolangir. Rs 5,604 crore will be invested in the project. Chief Secretary Ajit Tripathy presided over the meeting.

Monday, October 27, 2008

KBK still limping

The Statesman, Oct 27, 2008
Statesman News Service

BHUBANESWAR, Oct 26: Two decades of focused intervention, entailing pumping in crores of rupees, seems to have had little impact on the notoriously backward KBK region (erstwhile undivided Koraput-Bolangir-Kalahandi districts) according to the Food Security Atlas released by World Food Programme and Institute for Human Development.
"It is surprising that the efforts put into the development of the region have not yielded tangible results," states the report, while dealing with KBK region and noting that widespread malnutrition and mortality levels are a pointer to the dismal situation.
The region is characterised by wastelands, scrublands, low agriculture development, abysmally low literacy levels and high malnutrition levels.
The KBK region accounts for 31 per cent of the total area of the state, but only 20 per cent of the total population indicating low density of population. A huge part of the region is unfit for cultivation and is mostly degraded forests and scrublands. Koraput, for instances, has more than 1,000 sq kms of its area under wastelands.
Low levels of land development in the region have resulted in poor performance on the agricultural front. Despite all talk of wasteland development, the fact is that the region has not benefited from the programme as yet.
Consequent to this is the fact that very small area can be cultivated twice in an agricultural year and the cropping intensity is low. Only 19 per cent of the total area of Rayagada district is under cultivation while it is barely 20 per cent in Malkangiri district, 35 per cent in Koraput, 37 per cent in Bolangir and 41 percent in Kalahandi. The KBK average works out to 35.5 per cent in terms of area under cultivation.
The food grain yield per heactre in KBK region is 590 kg with the yield per hectare in some districts like Nuapada being as low as 221 kg, Bolangir 302 kg and Kalahandi 491 kg said the report.
Less than five per cent of the surveyed tribal population were found to be in a food secure situation in these districts. The proportion of extremely food insecure tribal households that can hardly manage one square meal a day is highest in Rayagada district at almost 12 per cent of the tribal population being unable to get one meal per day for major part of the year. Five of the eight districts in the region have a less than 10 per cent urbanisation level and these districts have a very high proportion of STs, almost twice the proportion of tribes in other parts of the state.
Other parameters too show that KBK is lagging behind the rest of the state. Koraput, Nawarangpur, Malkangiri and Rayagada have a rural female literacy rate of less than 20 per cent. The food insecurity status of the region manifests itself in high mortality and malnourishment. Most of the districts in the region record over 150 child deaths per 1000 live births and over 40 percent of the children are in the moderately underweight category.
Shockingly, the situation prevailing in KBK region is despite special interventions in the form of Area Development for Poverty Termination (ADAPT) in 1988 followed by the Long Term Action Plan ( LTAP) in 1993 and the Revised Long Term Action Plan ( RLTAP) in 1998. Each of these schemes involved expenditure of crores of rupees towards overall improvement of the region, feeding programmes, water harvesting etc.

Tuesday, October 21, 2008

Initiative by Er Lalit Patnaik for Lanjigarh road-Phulbani-Angul Railway Line

Yesterday in an Action Plan for Khandhamal, I proposed our Rail Line demand for growth of Khandhamal to be included. The rail line should connect Lanjigarah Station to Angul via Phulbani that will almost bisect Khandhamal District. The chairman Dr Bhagaban & Prof Radhamohan appreciated the proposal but there were very few in public who could fully visualise the would be impact of our demand in peace making process.

In the mean time many a reporter and public of Bolangir region have telephoned me and have highly appriciated our proposal about Khandhamal that came out in a local news paper after our meeting at Bolangir. ........................

Lalit Mohan Pattnaik

Wednesday, October 8, 2008

Poor infrastructure in K'mal escalates conflict

The Pioneer, Oct 8, 2008
Pioneer News Service | Phulbani

The Kandhamal ethno-communal violence seems to have lost some of its force. Ground-level intelligence sources, however, feel that the truce may be a temporary phenomenon.

Thanks to new DGP Manmohan Praharaj's direct initiative - 107 alleged conspirators and instigators, including Hindu and Christian fundamentalists, have been arrested. On Saturday morning, the police apprehended two Christians carrying crude bombs. The VHP has accused the Government of arresting Hindu activists while being soft towards the perpetrators of Swami Laxmanananda Saraswati's murder. Long term improvement of the most backward environment of Kandhamal district, the basic cause of conflict, are not being addressed, lamented a former chief administrator of KBK. Though till date Kandhamal has not been included in KBK fold, but situation is more pathetic than KBK, he revealed.

Poor communication is one of the most nagging problems of the district, said an NRO, Sandip K Dasverma. He in a letter to the Chief Minister has detailed out the both physical and cyber connectivity for the district and KBK. After 61 years of Independence, Kandhamal continues to be one of the districts in the country without any railway connectivity. Khurda Road-Kandhamal-Balangir railway line will go a long way to serve the backward zone in a big way. The funding for the Khurda Road-Balangir railway track by the Railway Ministry is woeful. With the present level of funding it will take another half a century to complete the link, alleged Professor Chitta Baral.

Just like Ranchi-Vijayawada Highway intended to counter Maoists, the road connectivity inside the Kandhamal district will go a long way to serve the hapless tribals, he said he.

Equally concerned for the people of Kandhamal, Dhirendra Kar, a pro-active NRO said all the 12 blocks of the district from the district headquarters are ill served by the road network. In an e-mail to the Chief Minister, Kar has also harped on the infrastructure owes of the unrest-hit zone. t is very much difficult to contact people in the interior areas of the district. Internet service is equally dismal and it is non-existent even in the Block Headquarters.

Given such poor infrastructure, the ability of the administration and police to contain the raging frenzy is seriously compromised, said a senior police officer posted at Baliguda.

Orissa to explore bauxite in Keonjhar, Koraput

Business Standard, Oct 8, 2008

With a view to augment the availability of bauxite for the aluminium plants coming up in the state, the Orissa government plans to start exploration of bauxite in the Keonjhar and Koraput districts during the current fiscal.

It will take up exploration in the surrounding areas of Dholkata Pahar in the Keonjhar district and small and medium size plateaus in Dashmantapur block in the Koraput district to assess the availability of bauxite there.

An exploration was undertaken in Dholkata Pahar by the directorate of geology between the field seasons 1975-76 and 1981-82 and a reserve of 5.09 million tonnes of metallurgical grade bauxite was found.

Preliminary investigations carried out in the surrounding areas of Dholkata Pahar, like Unsir, Serenda and Samrajpahar, also indicated the presence of bauxite.

Drilling in Dholkata Pahar has revealed the thickness of laterite profile of up to 18metres, with bauxite being encountered up to a maximum depth of 16 metres from the surface. As Unsir, Serenda and Samraja Pahar are adjacent to Dholkata Pahar and have similar geological set up, the directorate hopes to get bauxite of the same nature there.

Keeping that in view, it plans to carry out geological mapping for bauxite in these areas, followed by drilling wherever necessary. While geological mapping will be taken up for 100 square kilometres, trial excavation, drilling and sampling are proposed to be taken up if necessary, sources added.

Similarly, assessment of bauxite and gemstone potential in Dashmantpur block in the Koraput district is proposed to be taken up during the current fiscal. It may be noted that the area around Girliguma in Dashmantapur exposes the ‘Eastern Ghat Super’ group of rocks.

While the eastern part of Girliguma is occupied by about 36 plateaus of various dimensions, the valley part of the area exposes basic granulites, pegmatites and quartz veins. The gravels, derived from the pegmatites and their contact zones, are often panned by the local people to recover fibrolite with cat’s eye effect.

In this backdrop, an exploration will be undertaken in these plateaus for bauxite.

Sunday, October 5, 2008

Open Letter to PM on Kandhamal violence - proposed long term solutions

Dr. Manmohan Singh
Prime Minister of India

Cc: Mr. Naveen Patniak, Chief Minister of Orissa
Cc: Shri Muralidhan Chandrakant Bhandare, Governor of Orissa

Subject: The common thread of large scale violence in Orissa in 2008; proposed solution to be taken on war footing

Dear Dr. Singh:
While the nation's eye is focused on the recent Kandhamala violence, I would urge you to go over the following news reports about large scale violence, most initiated by Naxalites and Maoists, in Orissa in 2008. These large scale violent events happened in Nayagarh, Malkangiri, and Kandhamal districts, and have spread to nearby districts such as Gajapati and Boudh. To really solve the Kandhamala violence and to ensure that it does not happen again, one needs to dig a bit deeper and find the fundamental issues that need to be addressed. Just more police is not enough as we can never have enough police to guard over the thousands of villages in these areas. The news snippets are:

February 15 2008 (Deecan Herald): "Fifteen people including 13 policemen, a civilian and a gram rakhi (village guard) were killed when armed Naxalites unleashed a wave of attacks on police establishments like stations, district police armoury and police training centre in Nayagarh town … Twelve policemen and women have also sustained injuries in the attacks and have been hospilised. The condtion of some of the injured police personnel is stated to be critical. In a daring and meticulously planned wave of attacks, the ultras virtually laid a siege to the town. The Naxals who included women cadres have looted huge quantities of arms and ammunitions from the district armoury in a truck and a bus they hijacked, besides setting on fire the police stations and vehicles. The arms looted by the ultras included light machine guns and assault rifles. … According to Rajesh Kumar, the Superintendent of Police(SP), Nayagarh, nearly 400 to 500 armed Naxals launched simultaneous attacks on the police stations and other establishments taking the security personnel by surprise."

June 29 2008 (AFP): "At least 39 members of an elite Indian anti-insurgency unit were missing feared drowned in the east of the country Sunday after their boat capsized following an attack by Maoist rebels, police said. The boat, which was carrying 64 people, came under heavy rebel fire while patrolling a reservoir near Malkangiri in the south of the coastal state of Orissa, police said."

July 16 2008 (Times of India): "In the second major strike by Maoists in Orissa in less than three weeks, 21 Orissa policemen were feared killed in a land mine explosion and firing by the ultras in Malkangiri district on Wednesday. The van carrying the members of the Special Operations Group was on its way from MPV 126, 50km from here, to MPV-41, when the landmine went off. The SOG personnel were going to the place where the house of a BJP leader was attacked by the Maoists on Tuesday night."

Dec 27 2007 (Times of India): "Eleven churches and prayer houses were ransacked and torched in several areas of Kandhamal district in Orissa in the early hours on Thursday. Seven churches and prayer houses were attacked and set afire in Gandapadar, Badahapanga, Bhandarapada, Pisupadar, Masapadar, Minia and Adigara under Phulbani Sadar police station area, police said."

August 23 2008 (Times of India on Oct 3' 2008): "Many Christians have been killed, and an estimated 50,000 forced to flee their homes in the eastern state as attacks on Christians have escalated across the country after a Vishwa Hindu Parishad (VHP) leader Swami Laxmanananda Saraswati and four of his aides were shot dead by unidentified gunmen at his Jalespata Ashram in Kandhamal district on August 23."

Oct 4 2008 (The Hindu): "The Orissa State committee of the Communist Party of India (Maoist) on Saturday claimed that it killed Vishwa Hindu Parishad leader Swami Lakshmanananda in Kandhamal district on August 23. Talking to a team of journalists from Bhubaneswar in a forest in Kandhamal, the spokesperson of the party's Orissa unit, Sabyasachi Panda, alias Sunil, said it became necessary to eliminate the Swami as he was forcing tribals and Dalit Christians in Kandhamal to convert to Hinduism. "After the December 2007 communal violence in Kandhamal, we threatened to kill him if he and his supporters did not refrain from harassing tribals and Dalit Christians to change their religion," said Mr. Panda."

Now let us dig into the geography of Nayagarh, Malkangiri and Kandhamal.

Nayagarh is about 100 kms from Bhubaneswar close to the Dasapalla forest. It is also 65.6 kms away and the fifth station from the Khurda Rd station on the Khurda Rd - Balangir railway line which was sanctioned in 1994-95, but has made very little progress. The other proposed stations from the Khurda Rd side include Dasapalla (110.25) and Boudh (198). Dasapalla is considered deep jungle and an often used hide out for the Maoist rebels. Boudh is the town where disturbances spread to from Kandhamala.

Malkangiri is to the southwest of Koraput, the farthest district heard quarter town from Bhubaneswar and close to Andhra Pradesh and Chhatisgarh, and again a major operation area of the maoists. It is the second major town (Motu on the border is the first) on the Orissa side on the proposed Vijyawada-Ranchi highway. Also, for several years now the Orissa government has been proposing survey of a Railway line linking Jeypore to Malkangiri and beyond.

The Kandhamal district (earlier called Phulbani) is probably the worst connected district of Orissa, with large tracts of dense and open forested areas. One way to connect it would to the mainstream is to have a railway line from Lanjigarh Rd in Kalahandi cutting across the district, touching Boudh on the under construction Khurda Rd - Balangir line and then go across Mahanadi to Talcher.

The attached map shows these districts are surrounded by large tracts of dense and open forested areas, and partly explains why the naxalites and Maoists are able to make them their base.

(NOTE: Phulbani is now called Kandhamala)

(Note: The lines in red are the ones that are needed to bring rail connectivity to the Kandhamala, Nayagarh and Malkangiri districts and criss-cross the big connectivity gap in the heart of Orissa. The crossed segments are already approved but progressing very slowly.)

Dear Prime minister: As an economist and a world leader you must know that lack of connectivity, entrenched forest and mountainous areas together with a different population base is a recipe for the sprouting of troubled areas. This is true all across the world; from J& K and North eastern areas of India to caucuses in Asia. While one cannot and should not get rid of the mountains or the people, the problem can be solved by making the areas well connected and bringing development. The Indian government is doing that in J & K and in the northeast; but has mostly forgotten about the similar areas in Orissa, Chhatisgrah, and Andhra Pradesh, which are the favorite bases of the naxalites and Maoists.

Sir: We would like you to pay the same attention to these areas in terms of connectivity as you do to the North east and J & K. In particular we would request that following be done in a war footing within the 11th plan.

(i) The Vijaywada-Ranchi highway that passes through many of these areas be completed.

(ii) Broadband connectivity be brought to these districts with adequate access locations.

(iii) Two Railway lines, parts of which have already been sanctioned by the Railways but are progressing slowly, are completed and made operational. Those lines are:

a. Khurda Rd – Balangir (passes through Nayagarh and Boudh) – This line was sanctioned in 1994-95 is progressing very slowly.

b. Bhadrachalam Rd (Andhra Pradesh) – Malkangiri – Jeypore – Nabarangpur – Junagarh – Lanjigarh Rd – passing through Kandhamala – Boudh – Angul – Talcher – Bimlagarh: Several segments of these lines are approved but progressing slowly. Those segments are Junagarh – Lanjigarh Rd and Talcher – Bimlagarh. Angul – Talcher is operational.

(iv) With the above lines operational, development should be brought into Kandhamal, Boudh, Gajapati, and KBK districts (including Kalahandi and Malkangiri) through 1-2 Rail factories and public sector units that can use the steel and aluminum and power produced in abundance in Orissa.

Sir: You may be advised by the Indian Railways, which has no qualms in taking profits made from Orissa to its other projects outside Orissa that the cost of the above lines would be too much, but let me point to some data.

(a) As per the calculation in http://kbkrail.orissalinks.com/ Indian Railways is scheduled to make profit of 2679.72 crores/year from its operations in Orissa. If 1500 crores of this money (the rest may go to Indian Railway's current plans for Orissa) is put into Orissa, in just 2-3 years the above mentioned lines could be completed.

(b) While we do not begrudge IR related developments in the rest of India, we would just like to point the following to counter the common IR retort (including one given by the Railway Board chair to an Oriya-American gathering in Canada earlier this year – please see http://www.orissalinks.com/orissagrowth/archives/1550 ): The Indian Express article at http://www.indianexpress.com/news/Rlys-brochure-lists-what-Lalu-has-done-for-Bihar/355013/ says the following:

That Bihar has been one of the top beneficiaries of Railway Minister Lalu Prasad Yadav's largesse in the last four years is no secret. Now, armed with an 18-page brochure, his ministry is going all out to drive home the point that Bihar bagged railway projects worth Rs 52,323 crore during his term.

Sir: We are very happy for Bihar and also for the regions benefitted by the IR's other 11th plan grand plans such as the freight corridor, metro rails and high speed rail corridors, none of which touch Orissa.

But shouldn't immediate attention be paid to bringing connectivity to the backward, forested, badly connected areas of Orissa that includes the trouble spots of Kandhamala and Malkangiri. This is especially puzzling when IR makes a lot of profit from Orissa (details at http://kbkrail.orissalinks.com/) and spends only a small part of it in Orissa. We understand that redistribution of profits and tax collections across regions of a country are normal, but does it make sense to take from the poor (Orissa) and give to the rich, especially when this act creates chaos with the poor (Kandhamala, Orissa).

Sir: We sincerely hope that you will now see the common thread running through the several large scale violent events in Orissa in 2008 and address the key issues of lack of connectivity and development in these areas.



1. Estimated profit Indian Railways will make from Orissa in 2008-09:

Zone in Orissa Total Route Kms Route kms in Orissa Estimated Orissa's proportional
2008-2009 share of the profit
profit in 2008-2009
(in crores)

ECOR 2430 1607 3077.15 2034.97 crores

SECR 1599 51 2529.89 80.69 crores

SER 2577 589 2467.88 564.06 crores

Total 2247 2679.72 crores

2. One of the earlier planning commissions has noted in http://planningcommission.nic.in/plans/stateplan/sdr_orissa/sdr_orich2.doc

"Railways have always played an important role in economic development and rapid social transformation in all parts of the globe. It is one of the key economic infrastructures. However, it is most unfortunate that in a poor and backward state like Orissa, development of rail networks has received much less attention of the Central Government in the post-independence period. There are as many as seven districts like Boudh, Kandhamal, Deogarh, Nayagarh, Kendrapara, Malkangiri and Nabarangpur out of the 30 districts of the state, which do not have any railway line passing through them. In the year 1998-99, the density of railway route length per 1000 sq. km of area in Orissa was only 15.03 km as against 42.66 km in West Bengal and 19.11 km. at all-India level".

3. The tribal population percentage of the KBK districts are as follows: Malkangiri 58.36% ST (+19.96% SC), Rayagada 56.04% ST (+14.28% SC), Nabarangpur 55.27% ST (+15.09% SC), Koraput 50.67% ST (+13.41% SC), Nuapada 35.95% ST(+13.09% SC), Kalahandi 28.88% ST (+17.01% SC), Sonepur 22.11% ST (+9.5% SC), Balangir 22.06% ST (+15.39% SC). Two adjacent districts also have high tribal population. They are Kandhamala 51.51% ST (+18.21% SC) and Gajapati 47.88% ST(+8.77% SC).

4. The literacy rates in the KBK districts are abysmally low. Malkangiri 31.26%, Nabarangpur 34.26%, Rayagada 35.61%, Koraput 36.2%, Nuapada 42.29%, Kalahandi 46.2%, Balangir 54.93%, Sonepur 64.07%. Two adjacent districts also have low literacy: Gajapati 41.73% and Kandhamala 52.95%. The state average is 63.1%.

5. Population below the poverty line in southern Orissa (of which KBK is a part) is reported to be 89.17% of the people according to the 1999-2000 NSS data and 72% of the families according to the 1997 census.

Chitta Baral
Professor and Chair
Department of Computer Science & Engineering
Arizona State University

No President Rule but Stop violence in Kandhamal: Letter to the PM

Dr. Manmohan Singh, Honorable Prime Minister of India, New Delhi, India,

Copy to:
Smt Pratibha Patil, The President of India
Smt. Sonia Gandhi, President: Indian National Congress
Mr Naveen Patnaik, Chief Minister of Orissa
Shree Somnath Chaterjee, Speaker of Lok Sabha
The Media

Dear honorable Prime Minister Dr Singh,

I am surprised to read in few media section on possibility of President Rule in Orissa though statements issued by both central Government and Orissa state Government clearly indicate there was an infrastructure failure in Kandhamal for which security people from out side the district could not reach on time.

Unfortunately, cooperation between state and central Governments is missing in the latest violence in Kandhamal and has been become a political battle field for both UPA and NDA due to up coming national and state elections next year.

Practically if the state Government has failed to stop communal violence in Orissa, then morally union Government of India has also failed to stop terrorism and communal violence in other states which is clear from recent consecutive terrorist activities in Bangalore, Ahemadabad, Delhi, Maligaon and violence in Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Kerala etc.

Along with Kalahandi, Balangir and Koraput (KBK), Kandhamal is also one of the backward districts in the country.

Since independence, there is no railway line passing through this district though it is geographically located towards the center of the state. Theoretically, the district has potential to act as bridging point to connect North-East to South-West and South-West to North-East of Orissa. However, this was not the case due to severe failure of road infrastructure in the district.

Though officially NDA Government declared NH217 passing thorough some of the small towns in Kandhamal, in actual road condition have not yet improved as there was no support from the present central Government to this project.

Except a heart line like road from Tumudiband to Phulbani via Baliguda and G.Udayagiri there is no alternative road in manageable condition to Phulbani or Bhanjanagar from Tumidibandh.

Blockade of this route can easily make difficult for security movement in the region as was in the recent case. Most of the buses which were traveling from state capital to KBK districts are now diverted to some other routes as these routes passing through Kandhamal are in worst in condition. Other state roads in the district such as Lanjigarh road – Tumudibandh-Simanbadi - Daringbadi- Bhagbanpur-Gunduribadi –Bhanjanagar, G.Udayagiri – Paburia – Bandhaguda – Nuagaon and Raikia – Simanbadi are unusable in normal standard.

If there was no political ill treatment then Vijawada – Ranchi highway which was proposed by Orissa Govt. recently should have passed though whole Kandhamal district from Tumudibadh to Puruna Cuttack instead of just few kilometer as proposed now and brought more development in road infrastructure in Kandhamal.

Our railway minister is now also eager to implement President Rule in Orissa, however, no proposal has been considered yet for Lanjigarh road – Phulbani- Anugul railway link passing through whole Kandhamal district, the rail route that is one of the major hopes for railway development in this backward and highly tribal and Christian populated district.

On the other hand most of the railway projects in KBK are hanging since decades. Kantabanji – Khariar – Dharamgarh – Nabarangpur – Jeypore which passes most backward pockets in the country (Nabarangpur, Koraput and Kalahandi parliament constituency were recently ranked at the bottom 5 Lok Sobha constituency in Socio-economic development by India Today, Sept 22, 2008) is not yet surveyed and approved whereas railway minister’s home constituency gets railway projects of tens of thousands of crores in last 3 years.

When both state and central Government has equally failed since decades to develop road and railway infrastructure of a remote and backward place (which was already known for communal tense between tribal and minorities since years) then it is foolish to think that President Rule in Orissa would solve the problem permanently.

A sensitive issue like communal violence in Orissa can not be solved unless there is a political seriousness to solve the problem. Kandhamal is not a new issue, tension between two tribes, one supported by missionary group and other by Viswa Hindu Parisad in Kandhamal was there since years. Most of the major national political parties are well aware of this thing.

The story on communal tension as presented in the national media and by national political leaders is not all about the case, one need to unearth the hidden tension between two tribes of Kandhamal in the context of communalism.

It would be nice if both state and central Government look the matter in the local level before bringing national politics to it and bring more infrastructure and educational development to this remote pocket which would help to solve the problem permanently.

Implementing President Rule may satisfy some of the UPA partners but will never solve the problems in Kandhamal permanently. Rather it would bring a dark spot for a Prime Minister (who is largely respected among intellectual mass in the country) simply due to toppling a democratically elected Government not because Naveen Patnaik Government has failed but because when Central Government itself has been failing to control terrorism and communal violence in other places in the country.

On the other hand politically it may bring more controversy as when Graham Strain was brutally killed in Orissa with his children there was no implementation of President Rule in Orissa at that point of time (the time when both center and state were rules by Indian National Congress party). Thus, it may further help Hindu fundamentalists to spread their ideas and bring more communal tension to a naturally beautiful place like Kandhamal and rest of the country.

President Rule in Orissa would also add another political struggle to the list severely affecting state and center relation in years to come.

I sincerely hope your Government would not take such a step which would harm Orissa state and the nation in general and request both Orissa state and central Governments of India to come forward and cooperate to stop communal violence and bring back peaceful normal life to Kandhamal.

Thank you and best regards

Digambara Patra

Dr Digambara Patra
Assistant Professor
Department of Chemistry
Faculty of Arts and Sciences
American University of Beirut
Bliss Street-P.O. Box: 11-0236
Beirut, Lebanon
Email: digpatra@rediffmail.com